Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a long-term condition that is characterized by the liver gradually losing its function. Wastes and extra fluid are filtered off from the bloodstream by the kidneys and excreted through the urine. The buildup of large concentrations of fluid, electrolytes, waste products, and disrupted RFTs (renal function tests) can be suggestive of advanced chronic renal disease.

If your labs do not come out normal, ensure to visit the Best Nephrologist in Karachi at your earliest. If you experience any symptoms or signs of renal disease, schedule an appointment with your doctor. A kidney disease’s progression to renal failure could be stopped with early identification.

Signs and Symptoms

If kidney damage progresses slowly, signs and symptoms of the chronic renal disease manifest over time. Excess fluid and metabolic waste buildup or electrolyte imbalances can stem from renal function loss. Loss of kidney function can result in any of the following consequences, depending on its severity:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Reduced appetite
  • Weakness and exhaustion 
  • Difficulty with sleep 
  • More or less frequent urination
  • Cognitive problems
  • Muscle spasm
  • Swelling in the ankles and feet
  • Itchy, dry skin 
  • Hard to regulate high blood pressure
  • Breathlessness if pleural or pericardial effusion emerges around leading to chest discomfort


The treatment of CKD is rather supportive than curative. It incorporates lifestyle modifications, drug therapy, dialysis, and kidney transplant based on the stage of the disease.

Lifestyle Changes

Quit smoking. Eat a nutritious, balanced diet and limit your salt intake to less than 6g (about 1 teaspoon) every day if you smoke as renal disorders frequently precipitate peripheral edema. Manage your use of alcohol so that you don’t exceed the weekly suggested limit of 14 units.

Exercise regularly; try to get at least 150 minutes a week. Losing weight is essential to avoid any co-morbid/complications that can further accelerate or deteriorate renal failure condition.

Avoid using NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines) without a doctor’s prescription unless absolutely necessary. If you have a renal illness, using these medications could damage your kidneys.

Drug Therapy

Although there is no specific treatment for CKD, there are several issues that can contribute to the condition, such as hypertension, and its complications that can be managed with medication.

In general, individuals with renal impairment should strive to manage their blood pressure to less than 140/90mmHg; however, if you concomitantly have diabetes, you should seek to maintain the blood pressure to less than 130/80mmHg. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are one type of blood pressure medication that is frequently used including ramipril, enalapril, and lisinopril.

People with CKD are more vulnerable to strokes and cardiac events. Statin medications are often prescribed to avert cardiovascular disease. The drugs atorvastatin and simvastatin are two examples.

If you develop swelling, edema, and anemia very frequently, your physician may put you on diuretics (such as furosemide) and hormone replacement therapy (like erythropoietin) respectively. The use of iron supplements may also be advised if your blood profile suggests iron deficiency anemia.

Dialysis and Kidney Transplant

Dialysis will typically need to be a lifelong treatment if you do not obtain a kidney transplant.

There are two primary dialysis procedures; hemodialysis works by channeling the blood through an external machine where it is filtered before being redistributed to the body whereas, With peritoneal dialysis, waste materials are removed from the blood as it passes through vessels lining the inside of your abdomen by pumping dialysis fluid into a compartment therein.

Hemodialysis is usually advised about three times a week at a hospital or home. Home peritoneal dialysis is typically performed overnight or multiple times each day.

Kidney transplantation is a treatment option for those with significantly diminished kidney function as an alternative to dialysis. Advanced kidney disease is frequently best treated with this method, but it requires extensive surgery and requires you to take immunosuppressants for the rest of your life to prevent your body from rejecting the donor organ.

Your physician may keep track of your blood pressure and kidney function using urine and blood tests at every visit if you have a medical condition that boosts the susceptibility to developing renal disease. If you feel that these tests are required for you, get the Best Nephrologist in Islamabad on board for consultation.

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